City, county, provincial or federal government agencies or university departments that are responsible for preserving peace, protecting life and property, preventing and detecting crime and apprehending and arresting suspects. Also included are special constabularies that have full peace officer powers but only within limited jurisdictions, e.g., public parks, public transit facilities, public housing projects.
Programs offered by law enforcement agencies and other organizations that provide specific measures for discouraging preventable crime, obtaining information from the public about suspected criminal activity, investigating alleged crimes, analyzing physical evidence, providing support for victims and witnesses of crimes and reducing targeted types of crime.
Programs that utilize trained medical technicians who assist in rescue operations and provide preliminary emergency medical treatment for individuals who are acutely ill or injured on the scene and/or during transit to a health care facility. There are four levels of EMTs, the highest being paramedics who are permitted to administer drugs orally and intravenously, interpret electrocardiograms (EKGs), perform endotracheal intubations and use monitors and other complex equipment. In most communities, paramedic/EMT services are structured as separate entities on a par with police and fire departments, are organized as a branch of another municipal department, such as the public health department, or are integrated into the operations of another municipal emergency service such as the local fire department or police department. Under the latter model, personnel may be cross-trained to perform both functions. Paramedics/EMTs are dispatched when residents contact 911 with a medical emergency and are not accessed directly.
Programs that provide immediate access to support and advice for people who are in distress with the objective of defusing the emotional impact of the crisis, ensuring the person's safety and helping the person to take the next steps toward resolving the problem. Hotlines/helplines are generally staffed by trained volunteers who are available via the telephone, email, live chat, texting and/or instant message (IM).
Programs that establish and implement an overall plan for the development and upkeep of the built environment in urban and rural areas; and ensure that new construction on public and private property as well as improvements in current structures meet building codes and standards, zoning requirements and the goals and objectives of the master plan. Also included are local offices that are responsible for initiating and overseeing public works projects and ensuring the smooth operation of basic infrastructure services. Activities may include construction, maintenance and repair of roads, bridges, tunnels and other public ways; operation of waterworks, sewage and drainage systems; development and maintenance of channels and other public waterways; construction and operation of public parking facilities; lighting and signposting of public streets; management of waste materials; and other similar projects.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.